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FFF (Feet Follow Frame)

Move your CPB first and your feet will follow. That is, don't think moving the feet. Think moving the CPB.

Example: Move your CPB in any direction more than about 4 inches while standing perfectly upright -- don't bend over. If your feet don't follow then you will fall down.


An imaginary flashlight protruding straight forward from the dancer's CPB.


Flogging is not a dance. However, flogging could cause a dance instructor to dance in free-form including some undesirable explicative utterances. You have probably heard the old expression, "you need to hit a mule in the head with a board just to get their attention." Well, something similar, such as flogging, occasionally needs to be done to dance instructors.

Flogging is a whipping that what should be given to any dance instructor who teaches a Delayed Single Rhythm (touch step - odd rhythm) to basic students in West Coast Swing. The Triple Rhythm Unit (odd rhythm) should be taught instead.

Any student of West Coast Swing who is taught a Delayed Single Rhythm (touch step) first will be severely handicapped when trying to improve their dancing. They have a great deal of difficulty breaking away from the touch step to use triple rhythm.

Good Basics

Triple Rhythm
(Odd Rhythm)



Bad Basics

Delayed Single Rhythm
(Odd Rhythm)


For diagram definitions see
Short Hand Terms or Annotation


Flying Lindy (AKA: Flyin' Lindy)

Also See: Lindy Hop & Wikipedia Lindy Hop

Lindy Hop v. Flying Lindy (Similarities & Differences)
There is no real difference between Lindy Hop and  Flying Lindy other than types of advanced styling. Some liked to call it Lindy Hop and some liked to call it Flying Lindy.  They both use a C-Frame or a more upright GI-Style frame.  One difference today is that Lindy Hoppers sometimes use more hip sway backward & forward than the Flying Lindy dancers use.

Flying:  Is created by fast dancers bodies flying through the air from one position on the floor to another being driven by outstanding footwork using Skip-Step action. An illusion is often created where the viewer thinks they are seeing the dancers feet floating somewhat above the dance floor. 

Please see the "More Detailed Description" at the bottom of this entry. 

Movie Clips & Short Subjects

The following film clips include all forms of swing dancing (East Coast, West Coast, Lindy Hop, Flying Lindy, Balboa, Aerials, Lifts, Drops, etc.). You will find Dean Collins in many of the film clips listed here.

"After Seben" (1929) - Shorty George Snowden
"A Day At The Races" (1935)
"A Day At The Races" (1937)
Shorty George Snowden & Big Bea (1937)
"Spirit Of Youth" (1938)
"Start Cheering" (1938)
"Swing Sister, Swing" (1938)
"Whitey's Lindy Hoppers Radio City Revels" (1938)
"Keep Punghing" (1939)
"Naughty But Nice" (1939)
"Tabby The Cat" (1939)
"Bachelor Mother" (1939)
"Mad Youth" (1940
"Helzapoppin" (1941) - Frankie Manning
"Comparing Swingouts of Frankie Manning & Dean Collins" (1941)
"Dance Hall" (1941)
"Buck Privates" (1941) - Dean Collins & Jewell McGowan
"Lets Make Music" (1941)
"Dance Hall (1941)
"Juke Box Joes" (1940's Soundie)
"Groovie Movie" (1942)
"Cool Song" (1942)
"Powers Girl" (1942)
"Ride 'Em Cowboy" (1942) ... See at about 1:50 min
"Rings On Her Fingers" (1942)
"They All Kissed The Bride" (1942)
"Glen Gray and the Casa Loma Orchestra" (1942) - Dean Collins & Shim Sham
"Maharaja" (1943
"Kid Dynamite" (1943)
"I Dood It" (1943)
"Jive Junction" (1943)
"Stage Door Canteen" (1943)
"Young Ideas" (1943)
"Canterville Ghosts" (1944)
"Ghost Catchers" (1944)
"Hollywood Canteen" (1944)
"Jammin' The Blues" (1944)
"Swing Fever" (1944)
"Twice Blessed" (1945)
"Horn Blows At Midnight" (1945)
"Sensations" (1945)
"Junior Prom, Teenagers At," (1946)
"Boy! What a Girl!" (1947)
"Spirit Moves" (1950) - Frankie Manning & Willa Mae Riker
"Summer Stock" (1950)
"Living It Up" (1954)
"Running Wild" (1955)
"Rock Around The Clock" (1956)
"The Girl Can't Help It" (1956)
"Don't Knock The Rock" (1956)
"Rock Around The Clock" (1956)
"Shake Rattle And Rock" (1956)
"Carnival Rock" (1957) - Gil & Niki Brady
"Untamed Youth" (1957)
"Juke Box Rhythm" (1959)

Whitey's Lindy Hoppers - History

Also See:
West Coast Swing by Sonny Watson
A good definition of Flying Lindy is included in which Flying Lindy was referred to as WCS Flying Lindy.

Who's Who In Swing Dance - Frankie Manning
Who's Who In Swing Dance - Dean Collins
YouTube - Lindy Hop
Wikipedia - Hopscotch
Masters of Swing Dance
Groovy Movie (1944)
Flying Lindy.
YouTube Videos

Kenny Wetzel & Mary Ann Nunez (Flying Lindy & St. Louis Shag)
YouTube - Flying Lindy
Facebook - Flying Lindy

More Detailed Description

Basic Counts (4/4/ Time) 
6 count =  Even, Odd, Odd
8 count = Even, Odd, Even, Odd

Step: Is a weight change to the other foot.

Hold:  Means no weight change, but the free foot may do different things.

Even Rhythms:
Double Rhythm = step, step [X X] or hold, hold [/ /]

Odd Rhythms:
Triple Rhythm: step, step, step [X x X]
Single Rhythm:  step, hold [X /] 
Delayed Single Rhythm:  hold, step [/ X]

Flying Lindy (Basics)
Even Rhythms:  skip, step, skip, step [&X &X] ... Bouncing technique can also be used.
Odd Rhythms:  skip, skip, step [& & X] or skip bounce on one foot [/ X] or bounce, bounce on 2 feet [X X]
... Bouncing on 2 feet requires the bouncing ends up with the weight on the proper foot for lead into next step pattern.

Free Foot:  Can be in a simple hold or can go completely wild kicking or tapping in any direction.

Skip (Weighted Foot):  Is a small foot slide just like you did as a kid skipping down the side walk doing Hopscotch.  Skips can be back, forward, side, etc.  A Skip is not a hop where the weighted foot quickly leaves and returns to the floor.

Skip Direction:  In Flying Lindy a basic rock-step pattern would be executed as a skip-back & step then skip-fwd & step - [&X &X].  Skips normally occur in the direction that the body is moving next (after the skip). A Delayed Single (Odd Rhythm) would be executed as a skip, skip, step - [& & X]



This is the action that occurs between the time the Leader executed the lead to the end of a step pattern.  After the lead has been executed the connection between the dancers becomes neutral -- reducing to a passive connection.   Also see Resistance and Centering/Centered.

Foot Action Listing

Ball Change
Break Turn
Dig Swivel
Double Tracking
Draw **
Foot Positions
Gallop **
Opposite Foot
Same Foot
Single Tracking
Skate **
Sugar Foot (Sugars)
Swivel Walk

Foot Leads

Heel Lead
Toe Lead
Sending Foot
Receiving Foot
Same Foot
Opposite Foot

Foot Positions

The following are the commonly accepted foot positions. However, I fudge their definition a little when writing dance step patterns.  For kicks forward or back, I would annotate as being a 4th Foot Position.  For Kicks to either side I would annotate as being 2nd Foot Position.   For a pull or lift of the foot to the calf or knee level, I would annotate as being 1st Foot Position.  Go ahead, "shoot me" - or show me a better method of annotation.

1st : Feet together
2nd: Feet about a shoulder's width apart
3rd : Heel to instep
4th : Walking with one foot in front of the other.
5th : Toe to heel
Cross: A foot position that places the free foot in front of, and over the weighted foot
Hook: A foot position where the "hooking foot" (free foot) goes behind the weighted foot and positions itself next to the outside arch of the weighted foot.

Forward Break Turn (AKA: Military Turn)

Is a ½ Turn (180 degrees) in the opposite direction of the forward foot which returns you from whence you came -- leaving the receiving foot in the same position on the floor but facing in the opposite direction. This is also commonly referred to as a Military Turn because it is similar to an "about face" while marching. Also see Break Turn

Forward Foot

Most turns occur in the direction of the forward foot. The forward foot will normally be in either closed or open 3rd, 4th or 5th foot position prior to the turn.  There are other type of turns that may occur in the opposite direction to the forward foot such as Break Turns and Torque Turns.  Also see Turns & Turn Technique.


Proper frame, centering and connection is an absolute must for anyone wanting to become a good dancer.


See Posture for techniques to perfect good posture.

Closed Position (Ballroom)

Body Positions: Facing each other with the right side of the leader's torso in line with the vertical center of the follower's torso. The distance between the dancers may be from a few inches to full body contact, depending on the type dance and dance technique used. The intent is to attain an alignment in which the leader's right foot is on a line that is centered between the follower's feet.

Arms/Hands (Leader's Left & Follower's Right): The arms shall be bowed out horizontally with the hands meeting palm to palm at about the center of a line that could be drawn between the eyes of the two dancers. This helps compensate for differences in heights of the dancers.

Arms/Hands (Leader's Right): The leader's right arm shall be bowed out horizontally with the right hand flat on follower's back just below the shoulder blade positioned such that the finger tips just about touch the follower's spine

Arms/Hands (Follower's Left): Shall be near the top, front of the leader's right shoulder.

Closed Position Swing

Body Positions: The leader and follower shall almost be hinged at the hip. The leader's right hip shall be almost touching the follower's left hip. The other sides of their bodies shall be positioned open in the form of a "V" -- similar to a slightly opened book.

Arms/Hands (Leader's Left & Follower's Right): The upper arms are positioned down with lower arms held in a position such that hands can grasp each other at about waist level. The leader's left hand shall be cupped inward and follower's right hand cupped over the top of the leaders hand.

Arms/Hands (Leaders Right): The leader's right arm shall be bowed out horizontally with the right hand flat on the follower's back just below her shoulder blade with the finger tips just about touching the follower's spine.

Arms/Hands (Follower's Left): Shall be near the top, front of man's right shoulder, or (2) on man's upper right arm.

Open Position Swing - One Hand Lead

Body Positions: Facing each other about one arms length apart.

Arms/Hands (Leader's Left & Follower's Right): The upper arms shall be down with the elbows just slightly in front of the vertical center of the rib cage. The lower arms shall extend straight forward. The leader's left hand shall be cupped inward. The follower's right hand shall be cupped over the top of the leader's left hand.

Arms/Hands (Leader's Right & Follower's Left): The upper arms shall be down with elbows slightly behind the vertical center of the rib cage. The lower arms shall be held straight forward and close to the waist. This positioning of the follower's arms and hands is very important so the leader can always find the follower's left hand in the same location when needed.

Open Position Swing - Two Hand Lead

Body Positions: Facing each other about one arms length apart.

Arms/Hands (Leader & Follower): The upper arms of both leader and follower shall be down with the elbows just slightly in front of the vertical center of the rib cage. The lower arms shall extend straight forward. Both of the leader's hands shall be cupped inward. The follower's hands shall be cupped over the top of the leader's hands.

Free Foot

This is the unweighted foot, the foot with no weight applied.

Funk Swing

This is an advanced styling of west coast swing dance that allows the leader or follower to extend patterns at will with their own interpretive styling to the music. The term Hijacking is sometimes used when the follower takes control throughout their interpretive extension of a step pattern. Leaders should use a feather light lead to give the follower as much freedom as possible.



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